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Wednesday, February 15, 2006

Benton,-Louisiana



Benton is a town located in Bossier Parish, Louisiana. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 2,035.

Geography

Benton is located at 32�4141 North, 93�4426 West (32.694607, -93.740595) GR 1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.0 square kilometer (1.9 square mile). 5.0 km� (1.9 mi�) of it is land and none of it is covered by water.

Demographics

As of the census GR 2 of 2000, there are 2,035 people, 749 households, and 518 families residing in the town. The population density is 409.2/km� (1,062.6/mi�). There are 834 housing units at an average density of 167.7/km� (435.5/mi�). The racial makeup of the town is 54.64% White (U.S. Census), 42.16% African American (U.S. Census), 0.49% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.05% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.25% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.44% from Race (U.S. Census), and 1.97% from two or more races. 3.10% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 749 households out of which 37.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% are Marriage living together, 23.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 30.8% are non-families. 27.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.56 and the average family size is 3.13. In the town the population is spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.8 males. The median income for a household in the town is $25,708, and the median income for a family is $31,953. Males have a median income of $29,423 versus $18,472 for females. The per capita income for the town is $12,289. 24.2% of the population and 20.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 34.1% of those under the age of 18 and 26.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Tuesday, February 14, 2006

J.-H.-Allen



J. H. Allen is an author known for his 1902 book called Judahs Sceptre and Josephs Birthright which many have claimed formed the basis of a later foundation for the teachings of Herbert W. Armstrong on this same subject. While the works of Allen and Armstrong are by no means identical, with Allens work being much earlier, much longer and in hard back book format, the core of Allens work does appear to have served as inspiration for Herbert W. Armstrong and J. H. Allens book was not unknown to his students at Ambassador College.

Original 1902 review

Judahs Sceptre and Josephs Birthright states that it is: An Analysis of the Prophecies of the Scriptures in regard to the Royal Family of Judah and the Many Nations of Israel, the Lost Ten Tribes. A review in the Baptist Messenger reported: This is one of the most interesting volumes we have read in many a day and we confess that the arguments produced by Mr. Allen seem to be unanswerable. It is more thrilling than Western fiction. The description of the scarlet thread, the royal remnant, and the part played by Jeremiah in the preservation of the ruler for Davids throne, will cause you to lose sleep rather than go to bed without knowing the outcome.

Overview of publication

When this book first appeared, Britannia still ruled the waves and the sun was shining on the British Empire, which is why many came to believe that the British were Gods People and an introduction to the book claimed that: A notable and immensely significant sign of the times is the revival of interest in Old Testament prophecy that is beginning to be strongly felt in Anglo-Saxon countries. This book presents facts and considerations which every�one must sometime take into account, for they are des�tined to become important factors in world affairs.

Contents

Judahs Sceptre and Josephs Birthright is divided into three parts: Part one addresses the the claim that God made a promise Abraham that his decendants would become many nations. The chapters are: Judahs Sceptre and Josephs Birthright, Race Versus Grace, The Sceptre and The Birthright, Jacobs Seed Divided Into Two Kingdoms, All Israelites Are Not Jews, The Broken Brotherhood, Ephraim-Samaria Israels Idolatry, Samaria-Israel Cast Out And Cast Off, The Jews Go To Babylon And Return, Joseph-Israel Lost. In part two the topics discussed are the promise to David of a per�petuated throne and Kingdom. The chapters are: The Sceptre And The Davidic Covenant, Jeremiahs Call And Commission, The Tearing Down And Rooting Out, Vindication Of The Personal Promises Of Jere�miah, A Royal Remnant That Escapes, The Prince Of The Scarlet Thread, The Prince Of The Scarlet Thread And The Royal Remnant United. Part three claims to uncover the Abrahamic Nations. The chapters covered are: Lost Israel And The First Overturn Located, Jacobs Pillow-Pillar Stone, The Other Overturns, Dan The Serpents Trail, Israel In The Isles, A Few More Identities, A Study In Scarlet, Egypt-Israelitish And Anglo-Saxon Emblems, The Two-Fold Aspect Of Prophetic Israel, The Coming Exodus.

Summary of book

Details to be added.

NKVD-troika



The Russian word troika, threesome, was used during the Great Purge period in the Soviet Union to denote commissions of three persons as an additional instrument of extrajudicial punishment (,) introduced to supplement the legal system with a means for quick punishment of anti-Soviet elements. First operational troikas were introduced in the center, in Moscow military okrug in 1929. The qualifier operational means that they were based on operational departments of OGPU. Gradually troika were introduced in other places of the Soviet Union, for various purposes, of different kinds: in addition to operational troikas there were court troikas and extraordinary troikas , special troikas . A notable step was the NKVD Order no. 00447 by July 30, 1937, (About repression of former kulaks, criminals, and other anti-Soviet elements) undersigned by Nikolai Yezhov. By this order, troikas were created on the levels of republic, krai, and oblast. Investigation was to be performed by operative groups in a speedy and simplified way, the results were to be delivered to troikas for trials. The chairman of a troika was the chief of the corresponding territorial subdivision of NKVD (Peoples Commissar of a republican NKVD, etc.). Usually a troika included the prosecutor of the republic/krai/oblast in question, if not, he was allowed to be present at the session of a troika. The third person was usually the Communist Party secretary of the corresponding regional level. The staff of these troikas were personally specified in the Order 00447. Protocols of a troika session were passed to the corresponding operative group for executions of sentences. Times and places of executions of death sentences were ordered to be held in secret. Troikas of this purpose functioned for about a year. On September 15, 1938 the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee issued the resolution (64/22) about the creation of Special troikas for the period of Polish operation of the NKVD, functioned for about two months. The name was a derivative from the Special Council of the NKVD (,). Later the experience was re-used during other Mass operations of the NKVD: Romanian, Latvian, Finnish. The institution of troikas was abolished in 1938 by the Decree about Arrests, Prosecutor Supervision and Course of Investigation, issued jointly by the Sovnarkom and VKP(b) Central Committee.

Monday, February 13, 2006

The-Emancipation-of-Mimi



The Emancipation of Mimi (2005) will be the 10th studio album for multi-platinum international singing star Mariah Carey, the number one selling female recording artist of the 1990s. Careys album, which will be released by record label Island Def Jam, gets its title from a nickname for Carey previously used only by close friends of the superstar. Of the title, Carey says she wanted to... make it representative of where Im at as an artist...This is the fun side, the real me, and not the image and the baggage that comes with the whole Mariah Carey thing. With tracks including Say Somethin featuring Snoop Dogg and her already top R&B hit and best debut single since 1999, Its Like That featuring Fatman Scoop and Jermaine Dupri, critics say this could be Careys best selling album since Rainbow (album) (1999), or possibly even Butterfly (album), which sold 5 million copies. Critics are also predicting another number one album, the first in 8 years since Butterfly (1997). Initial rumours indicated the release was scheduled for March 2005 (Amazon.com has the release date as March 20th) but Careys official website reports the album will available in stores on April 12, 2005. The album will contain 12 tracks.

Sources

Mariah Careys Official Website (2005) News page Retrieved January 28, 2005
Amazon.com (2005) Amazon.com page for The Emancipation of Mimi Retrieved January 28, 2005

List-of-people-by-name:-Chb-Che



List of people Ch

Che

Chea - Chem

Don Cheadle, (born 1964), actor
Pafnuty Chebyshev, (1821-1894), Russians
Chubby Checker, (born 1941), United States popular musician
John Cheever, (1912-1982), author
Anton Chekhov, (1860-1904), Russian playwright
Maurizio Cheli, astronaut
Richard Chelimo, (1972-2001), Kenyan athlete
Jozef Chelmonski, Polish painter
Martin Chemnitz, (1522-1586), theologian

Chen

People named Chen

Chen Duxiu, (1879-1942)
Chen Jingrun, (1933-1996), mathematician
Joan Chen, (born 1960), actress
Chen Shui-bian, (born 1950), President of the Republic of China (Taiwan)
Sisy Chen, Taiwanese politician
Zhu Chen, chess player

Chene

Dick Cheney, (born 1941), politician
Eric Cheney, (1924-2001)
James Cheney, (died 1964), US civil rights activist

Cheng

Cheng Man-ching, (1901-1975)
Cheng Mao-y�n, (1900-1957), violinist and composer
Sammi Cheng, (born 1972)

Cheni - Chenn

Clifton Chenier, musician
Marie-Joseph de Chenier, (1764-1811), French poet
Claire Chennault, (1890-1958), US commander of the Flying Tigers

Cher-Ches

Cher (singer), (born 1946), singer, actress
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, (1904-1990), physicist
Ivan Cherevko, (born 1991), child prodigy
Nikolai Cherkasov, (1903-1966), actor
Shiing-shen Chern (1911-2004), mathematician
Leo Cherne, (1912-1999), American economist
Konstantin Chernenko, (1911-1985), Soviet general secretary
Victor Chernov, Socialist Revolutionary Leader
Don Cherry (jazz), (1936-1995), jazz musician
Don Cherry (singer/golf), (born 1924), pop singer, professional golfer
Don Cherry (hockey), (born 1934), professional hockey player/coach/commentator
Neneh Cherry, (born 1963), musician
C. J. Cherryh, (born 1942), US science fiction author
Benjamin Chertoff, Popular Mechanics research editor
Michael Chertoff (born 1953)
Luigi Cherubini, (1760-1842), Italian composer, opera composer
Alexey Chervonenkis, Russian statistician
Kenny Chesney (born 1968), musician
Charles Chesnutt, (1858-1932), author
Chespirito, (born 1929), comedian
Caryl Chessman, (1921-1960), convicted sex offender (executed)
Arthur Chesterton (1896-1973)
G. K. Chesterton (1874-1936), British author

Cheu

Jacky Cheung, actor and singer
Leslie Cheung, actor and singer
Maggie Cheung, actress
Cheung Tak Lan, singer

Chev

Maurice Chevalier, (1888-1972), French entertainer
Georges-Andr� Chevallaz, (1915-2002), Swiss Federal Councilor
Michel Eug�ne Chevreul, (died 1889), French chemist, dies at 102
Arthur Chevrolet, (died 1946), pioneer automobile racer and designer
Gaston Chevrolet, (died 1920), automobile pioneer
Louis Chevrolet, (1878-1941), automobile engineer

Chew

Benjamin Chew, (1722-1810), Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice
Jack Chew, athlete
Samuel Chew (1699-1744), (1699-1744), Chief Justice of colonial Delaware
Samuel Chew (1750-1778), (1750-1778), Continental Naval officer

Sunday, February 12, 2006

Octanol



Octanol is a higher alcohol with eight carbon atoms and a general chemical formula of Carbon8Hydrogen18Oxygen. H H H H H H H H H - C - C - C - C - C - C - C - C - OH H H H H H H H H

Water/Octanol Partitioning

Octanol and water are immiscible. The distribution of a compound between water and octanol is used to calculate the partition coefficient (logP) of that molecule. It has been shown that water/octanol partitioning is a good approximation of the partitioning between the cytosol and lipid Biological membranes of living systems.

The-End-of-Heartache



The End of Heartache is the 2004 album by American metalcore band Killswitch Engage. The album is the first to feature vocalist Howard Jones (heavy metal musician) who joined the band in 2002 replacing Jesse Leach. Drummer Justin Foley who was in Blood Has Been Shed also joined the band with former drummer Adam Dutkiewitz moving to guitar. The new lineup played on the 2003 Ozzfest and the MTV2 Headbangers Ball tour. The first recording was the song When Darkness Falls appearing on the soundtrack to the 2003 horror film Freddy vs. Jason. The End of Heartache was released on May 11 2004 in music. The album debuted in the top 40 of the Australian album charts on May 17, 2004 following a successful tour of that country with Anthrax (band). The title track was nominated for Grammy-Award-for-Best-Metal-Performance for the Grammy-Awards-of-2005 Grammy.

Track Listing

A Bid Farewell
Take This Oath
When Darkness Falls
Rose of Sharyn
Inhale
The End of Heartache
Declaration
World Ablaze
And Embers Arise
Wasted Sacrifice
Hope Is

Additional Info

Recorded at Zing Studios in Westfield, MA from Dec 15, 2003 to Jan 29, 2004
Produced and Engineered by Adam Dutkiewicz
Assistant Engineers: Wayne Krupa and Chris Fortin
Mixed and Mastered by Andy Sneap at Backstage Productions, Ripley Derbyshire, UK, from Jan 2004 to Feb 2004

Saturday, February 11, 2006

Isthmian-League-Second-Division



The Isthmian League Division Two is an England football (soccer) league in London and the surrounding area. It is the third and lowest division of the Isthmian League, and sits at step 5 of the National League System. The lower divisions of the Isthmian League have had a complicated history. Division Two was formed in 1973 as the first major expansion of the Isthmian League, and consisted of 16 clubs, mostly from the Athenian League. In 1977, the two existing divisions were renamed Isthmian League Premier Division and Isthmian League Division One, and another 17 clubs were admitted (again mostly from the Athenian) to a new Division Two. In 1984, yet another wave of expansion led to Division Two being split into Division Two North and Division Two South. These were reorganised again into Division Two and Isthmian League Division Three in 1991, and in 2002 Divisions One and Two were combined into Division One North and South, and Division Three was renamed as Division Two. The division now sits at the same level of the pyramid as 14 regional leagues, meaning its champions have to fight it out for only 8 promotion places to step 4. It is likely that step 5 of the pyramid will be restructured in the near future, and the Isthmian League Division Two may be merged with another league. Current members (2004-05 in English football)
Abingdon Town F.C.
Brook House F.C.
Camberley Town F.C.
Chalfont St Peter F.C.
Chertsey Town F.C.
Clapton F.C.
Edgware Town F.C.
Enfield F.C.
Enfield Town F.C.
Epsom & Ewell F.C.
Flackwell Heath F.C.
Hertford Town F.C.
Kingsbury Town F.C.
Ware F.C.
Wembley F.C.
Witham Town F.C.

Previous champions

Season in English football 1973-74 Dagenham F.C.
1974-75 in English football Staines Town F.C.
1975-76 in English football Tilbury F.C.
1976-77 in English football Boreham Wood F.C.
1977-78 in English football Epsom & Ewell F.C.
1978-79 in English football Farnborough Town F.C.
1979-80 in English football Billericay Town F.C.
1980-81 in English football Feltham F.C.
1981-82 in English football Worthing F.C.
1982-83 in English football Clapton F.C.
1983-84 in English football Basildon United F.C.
Season Champions (North) Champions (South)
1984-85 in English football Leyton-Wingate F.C. Grays Athletic F.C.
1985-86 in English football Stevenage Borough F.C. Southwick F.C.
1986-87 in English football Chesham United F.C. Woking F.C.
1987-88 in English football Wivenhoe Town F.C. Chalfont St Peter F.C.
1988-89 in English football Harlow Town F.C. Dorking F.C.
1989-90 in English football Heybridge Swifts F.C. Yeading F.C.
1990-91 in English football Stevenage Borough F.C. Abingdon Town F.C.
Season in English football 1991-92 Thurrock F.C.
1992-93 in English football Worthing F.C.
1993-94 in English football Newbury Town F.C.
1994-95 in English football Thame United F.C.
1995-96 in English football Canvey Island F.C.
1996-97 in English football Romford F.C.
1997-98 in English football Canvey Island F.C.
1998-99 in English football Bedford Town F.C.
1999-2000 in English football Hemel Hempstead Town F.C.
2000-01 in English football Tooting & Mitcham United F.C.
2001-02 in English football Lewes F.C.
2002-03 in English football Cheshunt F.C.
2003-04 in English football Leighton Town F.C. Football in England

Geoff-Crossley



Former F1 driver Name Geoff Crossley Nationality English Years 1950 Team(s) Alta Races 2 Championships 0 Wins 0 Podiums 0 Poles 0 Fastest laps 0 First race 1950 British Grand Prix British Grand Prix First win Last win Last race 1950 Belgian Grand Prix Belgian Grand Prix Geoff Crossley was a Formula One driver from Great Britain. He participated in 2 grands prix, debuting on May 13, 1950. He scored 0 championship points.

Complete Formula One results

Yr Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Team
1950 Formula One season Alta 1950 British Grand Prix MON IND SWI 1950 Belgian Grand Prix FRA ITA Alta

Friday, February 10, 2006

Continuous-revelation



In general, continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity. other denominations views on this principle needed >

Latter-day Saints

In Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), continuous revelation is the principle that God or his divine agents still continue to communicate to mankind. This communication can be manifest in many ways: influences of the Holy Ghost, vision, visitation of divine beings, and others. By such means God guides his followers to salvation and without such His followers will eventually form their beliefs or practices after a god of their own making. Church founder Joseph Smith, Jr. explained the importance and necessity of continuous revelation for the Church: God said, Thou shalt not kill, at another time He said, Thou shalt utterly destroy. This is the principle on which the government of heaven is conducted-by revelation adapted to the circumstances in which the children of the kingdom are placed. Whatever God commands is right, no matter what it is, although we may not see the reason thereof till long after the events transpire... As God has designed our happiness-and the happiness of all His creatures, He never has � He never will � institute an ordinance or give a commandment to His people that is not calculated in its nature to promote that happiness which He has designed, and which will not end in the greatest amount of good and glory to those who become the recipients of his law and ordinances. (Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, pp. 256�7.) The open sacred text canon of the LDS Church is based on the principle of continuous revelation. Its 9th Articles of Faith states: We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. Members of the LDS Church anticipate additions to its canon, including a complete translation of the Golden Plates believed to be the source of the Book of Mormon.

Quakers

In the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), continuing revelation is the inspirational means by which each individual understands and interprets the Bible. By inspired interpretation, Quakers formed a dynamic, common set of beliefs known as testimonies. Testimonies are not formal static documents, but rather a shared collection or view of how Quakers relate to God. Testimonies cannot be taken one at a time, but are interrelated. As a philosophical system, they are coherent, even outside of Christianity. The list of testimonies is also not static. The following is a generally accepted list.
The Peace Testimony
The Testimony of Integrity
The Testimony of Equality
The Testimony of Simplicity
The Testimony of Unity with Creation
The Testimony of Living In The World

ID-(television)



wrongtitle title: iD iD is a television programme from RTE which runs from 5 PM to 7 PM weekdays, following The Den (television). It is targeted at the teenage audience, and serves as a container for The Simpsons, Home and Away and other imported programmes. Usually presented by an early-20s female, the programme uses modern graphics, fast movement between scenes and other ploys to attract and keep young viewers. Some of the traditional segments from The Den of Ray DArcys era, including the astronomical reports from Astronomy Ireland have been moved into iD. In October 2004, iD was rebranded as iD2, in line with Network 2 becoming RTE2

Thursday, February 09, 2006

Absolute-poverty



merge Income inequality metrics accuracy Absolute poverty is a level of poverty at which certain minimum standards of living for example for nutrition, health and shelter cannot be met. That is, a person is absolutely poor if they do not have the means to procure some minimum amount of goods and services to attain some standard of living. Absolute poverty level varies from person to person and from country to country, but on a global scale usually the people in the world who earn less than $1 per person can be considered poor with regard to absolute poverty. The term Absolute poverty is perhaps slightly misleading, since there is no absolute standard that defines absolute poverty: the level of income necessary for these minimum standards is often referred to as the poverty line, which various institutions and individuals define differently. Absolute poverty can be contrasted with relative poverty which is a low income or standard of living relative to the rest of society.

Rhinoblaster



In the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers fictional universe, Rhinoblaster is a football-playing rhinoceros monster created by Finster. Rhinoblaster is quick on his feet and very clever. He could blow white mists from his nostrils and place his enemies in a multidimensional vortex. He wields a curved sword. He could project energy bolts from his sword and horn. He had put the Putty Patrol in football jerseys to battle the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, then used his white mist to trap the Rangers in the vortex. He was then challenged by Thomas Oliver and the DragonZord. As Rhinoblaster blew his mist to trap Tommy, Tommy threw the Dragon Dagger into the source of the mist, as Jason Lee Scott caught it, and all of the other Rangers had escaped the vortex. The Dino Zordss Z Sphere destroyed Rhinoblaster. He was later selected, along with Peckster, to guard the Rangers in the Abandoned Theater as Rita Repulsa and Lord Zedd got married. They failed, and the Rangers eventually escaped.

Wednesday, February 08, 2006

32VSB



32VSB is an acronym for 32-level vestigial sideband modulation, capable of transmitting five bits (25 32) at a time. 32VSB is rarely used, because receivers have more trouble distinguishing between so many fine levels of modulation. It can, however, be useful in situations such as short last mile coaxial cable runs, which bring fiber to the curb systems into the home as regular cable TV, cable modem, and cable telephone services. Other slower but more rugged forms include 2VSB, 4VSB, 8VSB, and 16VSB.

Bohr-compactification



In mathematics, the Bohr compactification of a topological group G is a compact Hausdorff space topological group H that may be canonically associated to G. Its importance lies in the reduction of the theory of uniformly almost periodic functions on G to the theory of continuous functions on H. The concept is named after Harald Bohr who pioneered the study of almost periodic functions, on the real line.

Definitions and basic properties

Given a topological group G, the Bohr compactification of G is a compact Hausdorff topological group Bohr(G) and a continuous homomorphism b: G Bohr(G) which is universal with respect to homomorphisms into compact Hausdorff groups, this means that if K is another compact Hausdorff topological group and f: G K is a continuous homomorphism, then there is a unique continuous homomorphism Bohr(f): Bohr(G) K such that f Bohr(f) b. Theorem. The Bohr compactification exists and is unique up to isomorphism. This is a direct application of the Tychonoff theorem. We will denote the Bohr compactification of G by Bohr(G) and the canonical map by b(G) mathbf{b}(G): G ightarrow mathbf{Bohr}(G) The correspondence G Bohr(G) defines a covariant functor on the category of topological groups and continuous homomorphisms. The Bohr compactification is intimately connected to the finite-dimensional unitary representation theory of a topological group. The kernel (algebra) of b consists exactly of those elements of G which cannot be separated from the identity of G by finite-dimensional unitary representations. The Bohr compactification also reduces many problems in the theory of almost periodic functions on topological groups to that of functions on compact groups. A bounded continuous complex-valued function f on a topological group G is uniformly almost periodic iff the set of right translates gf where {}-g f (x) f(g^{-1} cdot x) is relatively compact in the uniform topology as g varies through G. Theorem. A bounded continous complex-valued function f on G is uniformly almost periodic iff there is a continuous function f1 on Bohr(G) (which is uniquely determined) such that f f-1 circ mathbf{b}(G).

Tuesday, February 07, 2006

Nouriel-Roubini



Nouriel Roubini served as Senior Economist for International Affairs on the Staff of the United States President of the United Statess Council of Economic Advisors (July 1998-July 1999). Professor Roubini spent one year at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem before receiving his B.A. summa cum laude in Economics from the Universita L. Bocconi (Milan, Italy) in 1982. He received his Ph.D from Harvard University in 1988. Professor Roubini is the author of several books including: Bailouts or Bail-ins? Responding to Financial Crises in Emerging Economies, Political Cycles and the Macroeconomy, and International Financial Crises and the New International Financial Architecture.

Research

Professor Roubini�s research interests include:
international macroeconomics and finance
macroeconomics and fiscal policy
political economy
growth theory
European monetary issues.

Academic Positions

Currently, Professor Roubini is an associate Professor at the Stern School of Business at New York University. He has also held teaching positions at Yale University.

Current Appointments

Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research
Research Fellow, Centre for Economic Policy Research, London, United Kingdom
Member, Bretton Woods Committee
Member, Council on Foreign Relation�s Roundtable on the International Economy
Member, Academic Advisory Committee, Fiscal Affairs Department, International Monetary Fund

Red-Hat



Alternate meanings: See Red hat Red Hat, Inc. nasdaq RHAT is one of the largest and most recognized companies dedicated to open source software. Founded in 1993, the company now has more than 700 employees and 22 locations worldwide, including its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina in the United States. Red Hat is a market leader in the development, deployment, and management of Linux and open source solutions for Internet infrastructure, ranging from embedded systems to secure web servers. Red Hat was founded by entrepreneur Marc Ewing, and in 1995 merged with ACC Corporation, run by Canada Bob Young. Young then took the role as CEO of the company, until succeeded by Matthew Szulik in 1999. Open source software lies at the foundation of their business model. It represents a fundamental shift in how software is created. The code that makes up the software is available to anyone, and developers who use it may freely make improvements. Even competitors like Microsoft admit that the result is rapid innovation (compare the Halloween documents). Red Hat solutions combine Linux, developer and embedded technologies, training, management services and technical support. Red Hat optionally delivers this open source innovation to their customers via an Internet platform called Red Hat Network. On August 11, 1999, the company completed its initial public offering of six million shares of common stock at a price of $14 per share on the NASDAQ. On November 15, 1999, Red Hat announced its merger with Cygnus Solutions, a leading open source vendor. Consequently, Red Hat now develops Cygwin. Other acquisitions have followed, notably those of ArsDigita and Sistina. Red Hat Linux used to be the companys flagship product for both home and corporate use. With the spinoff of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Hat began to focus more on the corporate market, and stopped production of the personal version of Red Hat Linux after version 9. The current consumer distribution of Red Hat Linux has been replaced by Fedora Core, a more rapidly updated community supported Linux distribution, sponsored by Red Hat, run by the Fedora Project, and in part derived from the original Red Hat Linux distribution. Red Hat also has a business version of Linux, which is called Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The bulk of Red Hats revenue comes from corporations paying yearly support subscriptions for this version of their product. Red Hats name came from the manual of the beta version, which contained a request for the return of Marc Ewings characteristic red and white-striped hat, should anyone find it.

Monday, February 06, 2006

Richard-Fulton



Richard Harmon Dick Fulton (born January 27, 1927) is a Tennessee political figure. Fulton was educated as a youth in the public schools of his native Nashville, Tennessee. He later attended the University of Tennessee. As a youth he was once a paperboy. He served in the United States Navy in World War II. In 1956 Fulton was elected to the Tennessee State Senate in place of his brother Lyle, who had died suddenly shortly after receiving the United States Democratic Party nomination for that post. However, that body refused to seat him on the grounds that he had not yet attained the age of 30, the age required for senators under the Tennessee state constitution. His seat was taken instead by Clifford Allen. However, he ran for the postion again in 1958, and this time was of age and seated. He left that body when the term ended in 1960 and worked in real estate. In 1962 he entered the Democratic primary election for the United States House of Representatives against incumbent Congressman Joseph Carlton Loser. In the August voting, Loser was the apparent victor. However, the election was contested by Fulton and a minor candidate, labor union activist Raymond Love. A subsequent series of articles on the front page of the Nashville Tennessean and a lawsuit followed. The allegations of fraud were serious enough that a judge ordered a new primary election. Love did not participate in this race, stating that his only desire had been one for an open, honest election and that the fraud alleged, while sufficient to have perhaps thwarted the election of Fulton, had not been of an extent sufficient to have prevented his election in any event. In the closely-monitored rematch, Fulton defeated Loser rather handily. He waltzed to victory in the general election that November. Although no United States Republican Party has been elected from Tennessees Fifth Congressional District since Reconstruction, Fulton faced several spirited challenges while in Congress. While his opponents were unwilling to state it publicly, much of the opposition to Fulton among some voters was his unabashed support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which most white U.S. southern states Democrats actively opposed. In 1966, 1968, and 1970, Fulton was opposed by conservative florist George Kelly, who had a prominent shop in the Nashville suburb of Donelson. In 1968, Kelly almost defeated Fulton, and felt that he would have but for the presence of a candidate running under the banner of George Wallaces American Independent Party, who siphoned off enough votes in oppostion to Fulton to keep him in office. Depsite Kellys repeated efforts to brand Fulton as an ultra-liberal in television spots, his campaign faltered in 1970 and he decided to stop running for Congress. (He later achieved regional fame around Nashville as the man who paide young people $10 for memorizing the Ten Commandments.) In 1972 Fulton faced a fairly well-funded challenge from attorney Alf Adams, who tried unsuccessfully to tie Fulton to Democratic President of the United States nominee George McGovern, but Fulton received 62% of the vote, and Republicans essentially lost interest in contesting the seat. Fulton was very well-known in Nashville and the immediate area, but quite obscure outside of it, as are many of the members of the House of Representatives who are not from either high-profile areas or involved in party leadership at the highest levels. However, Fulton was a staunch supporter of music interests in his votes, taking especial interest in areas such as copyright law. This may have in part been due to the fact that Fulton, like many Nashvillians, was an amateur songwriter himself, at one point recording a song about a paperboy somewhat like the one that he had been in his youth. This interest landed him a slot as a contestant on the To Tell the Truth game show as the song-writing Congressman. (The show was not regarded as particularly dramatic in the Nashville area, however.) Fulton was re-elected to a final term in 1974. In 1975, the only mayor Nashville had ever known since its consoldiation with Davidson County, Tennessee into metropolitan government, Beverly Briley, was being forced to retire by term limits in the Metro charter. A secretive group of Nashville business leaders known as Watauga after the area in East Tennessee from which the original Caucasian settlers of Nashville had migrated, was not impressed with the prospective sucessors that they saw among local political leaders. They promised Fulton that if he were to run for mayor that he could almost certainly win. This proved prophetic, as Fulton won the race that year with almost a two-thirds majority. His only major opponent, Criminal Court Clerk Earl Hawkins, received about 25%. (In contrast the third-place finisher, plumbing-supply store operator Ralph Cohen, received only about 6%.) He was again succeeded by Clifford Allen, this time as Congressman. Fultons first term was not without controversy. He ran for governor of Tennessee in 1978, finishing third in the Democratic primary, behind flamboyant East Tennessee banker Jake Butcher and Tennessee Public Service Commission Bob Clement. In 1979 he was challenged by engineer Dan Powers, a political novice who had the backing of Briley, and Helen Wills, an African American who had retired from the United States Army as a lieutenant colonel. Fulton received only 53% of the vote, barely escaping a runoff election. Apparently one of the problems some voters had with Fulton was that he ran for governor so soon after being elected mayor. Fultons second term for the most part went more smoothly, and his 1983 reelection came much more easily. In 1986 Fulton again ran for governor, again finishing third in the Democratic primary, behind state Speaker (politics) Ned McWherter, and another Public Service Commissioner, Jane Eskind. This time, some of Fultons detractors accused him of particularly heavy spending on public works projects in predominantly African American areas of Nashville, and implied that this was a repeat of the pattern of eight years prior, and that mysterously little work had been done in the area on these projects in the interim. Fulton was the driving force behind the construction of the Nashville Convention Center in downtown Nashville during the mid-1980s. Almost immediately after its 1987 opening, it was considered antiquated: too small, inaccessible, and unable to expand. Another larger, privately-owned convention center opened at the Opryland Hotel 10 miles away during that time, causing the downtown convention center to be a complete bust. Even now, the NCC primarily books small functions and local events, while the Opryland convention center draws more corporate events and conventions from out of town. Therefore, the Nashville Convention Center has always carried the nickname Fultons Folly. Fulton was precluded by term limits from running for a fourth consecutive term, and his service as mayor ended in 1987. He was succeeded by another member of Congress, Bill Boner. He was not far removed from public service, as his wife Sandra served in McWherters Cabinet as Commissioner of Tourism. Fulton devoted his time to his familys real estate business and his governmental-relations consulting firm, and occasionally appeared in Nashville media as an expert political commentator. However, when mayor Phil Bredesen did not run for re-election as mayor in 1999 (it is still unclear whether a term limits provision amended into the Nashville Metro Charter after Fultons time as mayor limiting city council members to two consecutive four-year terms applies to mayors, superseding the former three-term limit, Bredesen chose not to contest this point), Fulton was again encouraged to run. From the outset of the 1999 race, it was apparent that there were actually three serious candidates: Fulton, Jay West, vice mayor and son of 1950s Nashville mayor Ben West and brother of popular state representative Ben West, Jr., and former Tennessee House of Representatives House Majority Leader and Vanderbilt University employee Bill Purcell. Purcell received almost a majority of the votes, Fulton and West trailed well behind, with Fulton slightly ahead of West. With Purcell slightly short of the 50% + one vote requirment for outright election, ordinarily a runoff would have occurred. However, Fulton announced shortly after the election that he felt that Purcell had won sufficiently and that he would not be contesting the runoff. By law, the runoff had to occur nonetheless, it was also necessary for some city council races, but Fultons announcement meant that there was very little remaining interest, and hence a very low turnout, for the runoff when it did occur three weeks later, and which Purcell naturally won easily, which was apparently the outcome foreseen by Fulton and his supporters whether they had continued to contest the race or not. Fulton returned to his real estate and consulting interests, which he still pursues as of 2004. Mayor Predecessor Beverly Briley Place Nashville, Tennessee Successor Bill Boner

Cisticola



Cisticola
Zitting Cisticola
Regnum Animalia
Phylum Chordate
Classis bird
Ordo Passeriformes
Familia Cisticolidae
Genus Cisticola
Cisticolas are very small insectivorous birds formerly classified in the Old World warbler family Sylviidae, but now usually considered to be in the family Cisticolidae, along with other southern warbler genera. They are believed to be quite closely related to the swallows and martin (bird)s, the Bulbuls, and the White-eyes (which include the well-known Silvereye). There are about 40 species in the genus. They are widespread through the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Old World including Australia. Africa has the most species, and is probably the ancestral home of the group. Cisticolas are usually bird migration They occur in a variety of open habitats including grassy wetlands and drier grasslands. They are sometimes called fantail-warblers because of their habit of flicking their tails conspicuously, or tailor-birds because of their nests. Cisticolas � pronounced sis-TIC-ola � are quite common within what remains of their preffered habitat � grassy swamps, weedy areas bordering water or irrigated pasture, and (in the tropics) the edges of mangrove swamps, though they are more easily heard than seen, and because of their small size (about 10 cm) not always easy to recognise, particularly in winter when they seldom emerge from their grasses. The many African species in particular are difficult to distinguish other than on call. The Zitting Cisticola (or Fan-tailed Warbler) is widespread throughout the tropics and even breeds in southern Europe. It has occurred on a few occasions as a very rare vagrant to England. In summer male Cisticolas make spectacular display flights and perch in prominent places to sing lustily. Despite his size and well-camouflaged, brown-streaked plumage, the male Golden-headed Cisticola of Australia produces a small, brilliant splash of golden-yellow colour in the dappled sunlight of a reed bed. Male Cisticolas are polygamous, the female builds a discreet nest deep in the grasses, often binding living leaves into the soft fabric of felted plantdown, cobweb, and grass: a cup shape for the Zitting Cisticola with a canopy of tied-together leaves or grasses overhead for camouflage, a full dome for the Golden-headed species, which is widespread in Australia. Species list: Family: Cisticolidae
Red-faced Cisticola, Cisticola erythrops
Singing Cisticola, Cisticola cantans
Whistling Cisticola, Cisticola lateralis
Chattering Cisticola, Cisticola anonymus
Trilling Cisticola, Cisticola woosnami
Bubbling Cisticola, Cisticola bulliens
Chubbs Cisticola, Cisticola chubbi
Hunters Cisticola, Cisticola hunteri
Black-lored Cisticola, Cisticola nigriloris
Rock-loving Cisticola, Cisticola aberrans
Boran Cisticola, Cisticola bodessa
Rattling Cisticola, Cisticola chiniana
Ashy Cisticola, Cisticola cinereolus
Red-pate Cisticola, Cisticola ruficeps
Dorsts Cisticola, Cisticola dorsti
Gray Cisticola, Cisticola rufilatus
Red-headed Cisticola, Cisticola subruficapillus
Wailing Cisticola, Cisticola lais
Tana River Cisticola, Cisticola restrictus
Churring Cisticola, Cisticola njombe
Winding Cisticola, Cisticola galactotes
Chirping Cisticola, Cisticola pipiens
Carruthers Cisticola, Cisticola carruthersi
Tinkling Cisticola, Cisticola tinniens
Stout Cisticola, Cisticola robustus
Croaking Cisticola, Cisticola natalensis
Piping Cisticola, Cisticola fulvicapillus
Aberdare Cisticola, Cisticola aberdare
Tabora Cisticola, Cisticola angusticaudus
Slender-tailed Cisticola, Cisticola melanurus
Siffling Cisticola, Cisticola brachypterus
Rufous Cisticola, Cisticola rufus
Foxy Cisticola, Cisticola troglodytes
Tiny Cisticola, Cisticola nanus
Zitting Cisticola, Cisticola juncidis
Socotra Cisticola, Cisticola haesitatus
Madagascar Cisticola, Cisticola cherinus
Desert Cisticola, Cisticola aridulus
Cloud Cisticola, Cisticola textrix
Black-necked Cisticola, Cisticola eximius
Cloud-scraping Cisticola, Cisticola dambo
Pectoral-patch Cisticola, Cisticola brunnescens
Pale-crowned Cisticola, Cisticola cinnamomeus
Wing-snapping Cisticola, Cisticola ayresii
Golden-headed Cisticola, Cisticola exilis